• Conventional Injection Therapy 
    2 to 3 injections per day of mixed long- and short-acting insulin.
  • Multiple Daily Injections​​​​​​​
    Injecting 3 or more times per day with rapid-acting insulin and 1 to 2 times per day with long-acting insulin.
  • Insulin Pump (Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion – CSII) ​​​​​​​
    CSII replaces the need for frequent injections by delivering rapid-acting insulin 24 hours a day. A programmed insulin rate mimics the basal insulin production by the pancreas and can be better adjusted to the body's needs. Rapid-acting of insulin acts very quickly to help minimise variations in blood glucose levels in response to carbohydrate intake or, if needed, to lower high blood glucose values.



HbA1c: an important measure of how effectively diabetes can be managed using a measure of the amount of glucose that has attached itself to each red blood cell over the preceding 2 to 3 months to assess the level of diabetes control.

The DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial) study confirmed that lowering HbA1c by just 1% can decrease the risk of developing microvascular complications by up to 40%*. HbA1c should be monitored every 3 months with the goal of keeping it below 7% (53 mmol/L) or at the target set by your diabetes healthcare team*.

Normal glucose values vary between 4.0 and 7.8 mmol/L, and you may want to consider trying to achieve these targets in daily life with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) levels using a personal glucose meter*.

It can be a challenge to reach and maintain the HbA1c goal whilst minimising the risk of hypoglycaemia. Insulin pump therapy enables adjustment in insulin requirements to meet the body's hourly needs.